TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF DESIGNING DEFORMATION WIRE IN BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS
Information on the existing structure of expansion joints, their advantages, disadvantages, limitations on the scope of application, and characteristic defects have been systematized and analyzed. A new classification of expansion joints is proposed, and a technique for selecting expansion joints for use depending on various factors influencing the choice of expansion joints is presented. It is necessary to understand that any building, apparently outwardly monolithic and stationary, often undergoes significant deformations. They are caused by various external influences and internal changes in the structure of materials. The paper considers only those loads and impacts, as well as their combinations, which should be considered when developing designs for expansion joints. The main attention should be paid to the analysis of the causes of the volume deformations of the structure, such as: concrete shrinkage; change in relative humidity; chemical interactions occurring in concrete structures; fluctuations in ambient temperature; concrete creep phenomenon. Recently, the filling material is expanded polystyrene sheet, which is inserted into the seam during its formation. Such filling allows free compression or opening of the seam with practically no stresses of the connected elements. However, bitumen-polymer compositions (mastic, thermoplastics of hot or cold hardening), pasting with rolled materials, installation of wooden boards, which are used as a formwork for concreting blocks, are used as fillers for a joint cavity.
In the expansion joints of large displacements (more than 25%), special profiles, splines, compression seals are used for sealing. The material of such seals are synthetic rubbers (rubber), plasticized polyvinyl chloride, high or low density polyethylene and the like. Very often, waterproofing tapes, as a rule, on a polymer base are used for the contour sealing of all types of seams.
The analysis of design solutions and operating experience of expansion joints revealed the most promising designs of expansion joints, which will allow designers to focus on improving successful solutions and avoid using obviously unreliable ones. According to the results of the study, a technology of a device for an expansion joint was developed to improve its operation and reduce its cost.
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