REALIZATION OF THE AVANT-GARDE CONCEPTS OF SHAPING IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF WORKING CLUBS
The article illustrates the principles of Avant-Garde architecture, which were proclaimed in woks of theorists of manufacturing art. This theme was considered in Alexander. Vesnin, Moisey Ginsburg, Nikolay Ladovskiy and works of others architects too. On their basis, the basic principles of the construction of the form, which formed the basis of the concept of shaping constructivists and rationalists, are identified. In the article the theoretical heritage and experience of the leaders of Avant-Garde architecture were analyzed and the main principles of shaping of the Constructivists and the Rationalists were determined. Club’s buildings that were designed by outstanding avant-garde architects, namely Konstantin Melnikov, Ilya Golosov and Ivan Leonidov, are considered.
The architecture of the work clubs was designed to symbolize aspirations for a brighter future and the ideals of a new social structure — equality, dynamic development, a high level of knowledge and culture. In the works of avant-garde architects, the club becomes a favorite topic for design. In the course of the competition, a typology of club buildings is compiled and original compositions and artistic decisions are formed, which reflect the concepts of constructing the form of constructivists and rationalists.
Despite some differences in the formation concepts of constructivists and rationalists, the projects of representatives of both directions had common features, such as: horizontal ribbon glazing, round windows, large glass aesthetics and uncoated concrete surfaces. These details visually spoke of the «modernity» of the new architecture.
As a result, of the study it is found, that originality of decisions of buildings of clubs was influenced both by the concepts of shaping of the leaders of the Avant-Garde.
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