FORMATION OF A METHOD FOR THE PREREQUISITES IDENTIFICATION OF THE EXPANSION OF EMERGENCIES DUE TO THE ACCUMULATION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES AT CHEMICAL OBJECTS
Emergencies related to man-made accidents at potentially hazardous sites occur in different countries of the world. In Ukraine, man-made emergencies make up 30% of their total. It is noted that low-tonnage production does not have such capacity and efficient engineering, technical methods for the prevention of object emergencies, including for reasons of gradual accumulation of harmful substances and unclassified emergencies. The analysis of emergencies at chemical objects of low-tonnage production in the world and in Ukraine showed the lack of common approaches to preventing the emergencies, including the emergencies of cumulative nature and the need to develop engineering and technical methods for preventing such emergencies to eliminate the effects of emergencies of cumulative nature. Part of the solution to this problem is the development of a method for the prerequisites identification of the expansion of emergencies in the framework of a comprehensive engineering and technical method for preventing emergencies at low-tonnage chemical objects associated with the risk of gradual accumulation of consequences of unclassified emergencies and accidents.
The potential impact of impaired technological processes on a number of productions on soils as a result of the accumulation of harmful substances in them is analyzed in the resaerch. The technological process is considered as a set of three blocks: preparatory processes (block I), basic processes (block II), packing and transportation (block II). The peculiarities of technological processes with domination of danger of the II block, I and II blocks, II and III blocks are investigated. Examples are carbon dioxide production, tablet preparation and ammonia synthesis. The production stages of each of the three blocks of technological processes of the investigated productions are analyzed, which violations of technological processes on which technogenic emergencies related to the accumulation of harmful substances can cause. The main harmful substances that can accumulate in the soil have been identified.
A method for the prerequisites identification of the expansion of emergencies due to the accumulation of harmful substances at chemical objects is proposed, which includes the experimental study of soils and the determination of the coefficient of hazard identification at each stage of production. The coefficient of hazard identification is determined by the total content of harmful (pollutant) substances that are characteristic for each stage of the technological process.
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