HARMONIZATION OF PUBLIC SPACES OF RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS
The article considers topical problems of forming public spaces in the city. The concept of public space is given, as well as the classification of a number of public spaces: by the type of their location in the fabric of the city and according to the level of social interaction; according to the functional purpose and style of the architectural and landscape organization. The issue of public spaces is considered. Examples of different types of residential courtyards of cities in Western Europe are given, as well as the relevance of residential courtyard space in the system of a wide range of public urban spaces is emphasized. The question of the urgency of the development of adjacent spaces is raised, and also ways of their organization are considered. The problem of an integrated approach to the organization of adjacent spaces is raised. The means of forming an individual non-traditional process due to the use of natural and artificial materials for the design of the yard are given; creation of green modules from ground cover plants, flowers, and shrubs; change in the character of the relief with the formation of hills, slopes, waves, including various types of vegetation; overcoming stereotypical approaches to choosing the type of plantings of trees, shrubs and flower beds, offering three-dimensional solutions with the use of greenery and more. To assess the visual qualities of the environment of open spaces within the residential area, it is proposed to use indicators that are able to store their qualitative and quantitative сharacteristics: parameters of space, parameters of visual perception. As a result of this study, recommendations were developed for the formation of the design project of the yard space in the existing building. Ways to improve the quality of yards are formulated.
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