FEATURES OF THE NATIONAL ARCHITECTURAL SCHOOLS OF CHINA
The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the national architectural Chinese schools.
The numerous studies’ results indicate the necessary number’s lack of theoretical achievements in the analysis of national architectural schools. And their inseparable connection with the specifics of certain Chinese territories. A thorough analysis of national religious and artistic works allows us to predict stylistic national trends. Architectural and artistic processes are presented, which are inclined to study by many scientists. The purpose of this article is to identify the architectural schools` features in China through the relationship between the uses of individual stylistic elements. These elements are correlated with the geographical location of the territory and religious beliefs.
The article describes the problem of artistic architectural schools` trends and the regions in which they are located. The concept of style in relation to Chinese arts has been clarified. The main differences between the style of the northern and southern architectural school are described. Their manifestation both in planning, and in a decorative and finishing look of buildings and constructions. It is indicated that buildings, even in adjacent regions, may be denoted by different terms. The preconditions for this phenomenon are the historical feature of the development of China's national architecture and urban planning. It has also had a significant impact on the development of East and South-East Asia. The steady tendency of interrelation between a philosophical and architectural component of a cultural heritage is described.
The Chinese tendency to create eastern analogues of European ideal cities due to the work of philosophical and religious currents and their synthesis has been revealed. This approach allowed us to interpret the provisions of Confucianism, Taoism and the Feng Shui system in the formation of historical canons, which became the basis of the entire Chinese tradition architectural schools. In this case, the main elements complement and interdependent on each other.
The basic Chinese architects’ rules, which are interrelated with the laws of natural harmony, are indicated. A number of materials used in the buildings’ design and structures in China have been identified.
The article provides an example of globalization’s impact on the development of the Chinese architectural school and its gradual return to its origins.
The conclusion of the article states that throughout history, the unity of man and nature in religious architecture has been a fundamental philosophical thought of the National Chinese Architecture`s School.
And the use of traditional Chinese architectural schools` ideas will allow in modern construction of the XXI century to achieve the unity of the architectural object with the natural landscape.
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