EVALUATION OF MACRO FACTORS FOR E-COMMERCE DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AND UKRAINE: POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS
This paper presents the analytical study results revealing the key factors for e-commerce deployment. We focused on macro level of the considered topic. Firstly, we defined that e-commerce deployment is closely related to current trend in population urbanization. We revealed a significant increase in urban population and along with that the e-commerce revenue grew up as well in last ten years. This trend has a positive dynamic. Given that secondly, the e-commerce deployment has forced the environmental pollution due to automobile transport utilization when the low consolidated home deliveries are implemented. We defined that this negative impact has to be leveled by a significant reduction of two- and three-wheels vehicles usage till 2040. Moreover, the light vans and trucks usage with fossil energy sources should be reduced till 2055 as well. Besides this policy, we observed that the technological measures can be implemented, namely in urban transportation. Thus, a two-echelon supply chain can be introduced allowing to make the parcel deliveries more consolidated. This should provide a reduction in vehicle mileage travelled resulting in more sustainable transportation. Special attention in this study has been made to analysis an e-commerce deployment in a developing economy. Ukraine has been considered as a case study. We revealed a significant growth in purchase number and commodities range bought in the internet in last seven years. As e-commerce can be implemented via several delivery channels, we have determined that for Ukraine the post office-based delivery option is more popular than a home delivery. We revealed a non-linear growth of opened new post offices within Ukraine area. Along with that we determined the same picture for parcels number delivered during last seven years. Having a such trend we can state that e-commerce deployment is inclined by a list of macro factors and has a great potential for Ukraine economy. In these conditions the transportation engineers and decision makers should unite their activity to promote the sustainable delivery services.
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