ANALYSIS OF EXPORT FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION OF UKRAINE IN THE RAILWAY AND SEA CONNECTION
The paper analyzes the export transportation of goods by rail and transshipment in seaports of Ukraine using the methods of mathematical statistics. At present, the export of Ukrainian goods to the countries of the world in terms of traffic exceeds imports several times and is the most dynamically developing international trade sector. Despite the unstable political and economic, and since last year also the sanitary-ecological situation in Ukraine and in the world, exports still have a stable positive dynamics among the total volumes of international traffic.
The analysis of export cargo with transshipment in seaports showed that for the sixth year in a row grain cargo ranks first among others in terms of exports. On the railway the key type of cargoes in transportations in recent years also became grain which rates of transportation increase annually. The export component of international trade is also based on ferrous metals, ores, oils, chemical and mineral fertilizers, and mechanical engineering products. The total share of the export component for the EU market as Ukraine's main international trading partner increased from 27.3% in 2008 to 37.3% in 2020.
Among the problems hindering the further increase in transshipment in seaports is the still underdeveloped infrastructure, despite the available opportunities to increase technical capacity, and as a result - the limited range of cargo and types of vessels for service, and the use of outdated technologies of ship handling and cargo operations in ports. Ukraine's international trade development projects include attracting investors to port infrastructure through concession tenders in seaports, introduction of private locomotive traction on railways, measures to ensure safety of navigation and maintaining the necessary depths in ports, addressing the shortage of rolling stock on railways, infrastructure development port railway stations.
The application of the Fourier analysis technique to detect cyclical fluctuations in transport processes made it possible to obtain a forecast function of grain cargo volumes in certain time intervals, which can be used to develop measures to smooth out uneven traffic flows and reduce uncertainties in transport.
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