PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL SECURITY FOR PEOPLE WITH RESTRICTED OPPORTUNITIES IN THE WORLD
Keywords:people with disabilities, people with limited mobility, social welfare
An analysis of the laws and regulations on the social protection of people with disabilities in different countries of the world was carried out, which shows that their main provisions and norms are almost the same. The sizes and conditions of disability payments per person per month in the most developed countries of the world are given.
It is noted that social payments and benefits in the EU average 25.2% of gross domestic product (GDP) per year. Most of all payments are directed to old-age and death benefits of a family member - 46.2% of all social benefits and payments, or 11.7% of GDP, as well as on the occasion of illness and the need for treatment - 29.1% of the total social benefits and benefits in the EU, or 7.4% of GDP. On all payments in other areas of social protection spend an average of 6.1% of GDP per year.
The best practices of social security for people with disabilities in Germany, Japan and China were considered, where all conditions were created for them to make these citizens feel that they are full members of society. They are provided with education, they are employed, and in their free time they can easily visit a museum or a cinema.
The problems of social protection of limited mobility groups in Russia and Ukraine were identified. Despite the fact that in Ukraine and Russia there are many laws and regulations protecting the rights of people with disabilities, they remain declarative, not provided with material resources and management implementation mechanisms. People with disabilities are the most vulnerable category of the population. They are not financially secure. Residential premises are not equipped with special tools and fixtures. Such people have problems with obtaining a full-fledged education due to the lack of barrier-free entrances to educational institutions, free access to the upper floors, access to public transport. There is a problem of employment of people with disabilities. Despite the fact that in Ukraine and Russia quotas have been introduced for the allocation of jobs for disabled workers, potential employers lack financial and other resources with the help of which it is possible to create comfortable working conditions for their disabled employees.
Having analyzed the experience of various countries of the world in relation to people with disabilities, we can conclude that Ukraine is only at the initial stage of solving this problem. There are not enough measures to ensure a full life for this category of citizens. However, the internal policy of the state is improving every year, creating more and more opportunities for the comfortable existence of people with disabilities in society. Thus, people with disabilities should be given a chance to recover in ordinary life. They must be equal members of society.
Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons. Proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 3447 (XXX) of 9 December 1975. Retrieved from : https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/rightsofdisabledpersons.aspx.
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 61/106 of 13 De-cember 2006. Retrieved from : https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.html.
Convention concerning Vocational Rehabilitation and Em-ployment (Disabled Persons). Entry into force: 20 Jun 1985. Retrieved from : https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/fp=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312304.
Buildings and structures. Availability of buildings and facilities for small-scale population groups: DBNV.2.2-17: 2006. - Effective from 2007-05-01. Kyiv: Minbud Ukrainy, 2007. - 21. (State building codes of Ukraine).
Living environment with planning elements accessible to persons with disabilities. Design rules: SP 137.13330.2012. - Date of introduction on 2013-07-01. - M.: Ministry of Con-struction and Housing and Communal Services of the Russian Federation, 2013. - 37.
Availability of buildings and facilities for small-scale popu-lation groups: SP 59.13330.2012. The updated version of SNiP 35-01-2001. - Moskow: Minregion of Russia, 2012. - 46.
Which are the best countries in the world to live in if you are unemployed or disabled? The Guardian 15 April 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/apr/15/which-best-countries-live-unemployed-disabled-benefits.
European demographic barometer. Retrieved from: http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/arc/evrobarom.php
Ergonomika dlya invalidov. Retrieved from: http://dspace.kpfu.ru/xmlui/bitstream/handle/net/20410/ergonomics_p4-9.pdf?sequence=1.
Social Security in Japan 2014. Chapter 8. Policy for people with disabilities, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. Retrieved from: http://www.ipss.go.jp/s-info/e/ssj2014/pdf/08_SSJ2014.pdf).
Kurachi, N. (2015). The Employment of People with Men-tal Disabilities in Japan: The Current Situation and Future Pro-spects. Japan Labor Review, 12, 1, 38–55.
Dronishinets, N. P., Filatova, I. A. (2017). Contemporary trends in the employment of persons with disabilities in Japan. Special education, 1, 68–80.
Disabled people in the country of the rising sun. Retrieved from : http://www.hello-perm.ru/invalidy-v-strane-vosxodyashhego-solnca/.
On the Protection of People with Disabilities: The Chinese national republican Act of 1990. Retrieved from: http://www.dredf.org/international/china.html.
The Great Epoch. Retrieved from : http://www.epochtimes.ru/content/view/55603/4/.
Polezhaeva, K. V., Kabakovich, G. A. (n.d.) Monographic analysis of the situation of people with disabilities in Asian countries. Retrieved from: https://scienceforum.ru/2014/article/2014007083.
About education: The Chinese national republican law of 1995. Retrieved from: http://www.asiabusiness.ru/law/law3/education/.
On Social Protection of the Disabled in the Russian Federa-tion: Federal Law No. 181-FZ of November 24, 1995. Retrieved from: http://legalacts.ru/doc/federalnyi-zakon-ot-24111995-n-181-fz-o/.
The problems of people with disabilities are important for society. Retrieved from: https://ukurier.gov.ua/uk/articles/problemi-invalidiv-vazhlivi-dlya-suspilstva/.
On the basis of social protection of persons with disabilities in Ukraine: Law of Ukraine dated March 21, 1991, as amended. Retrieved from : https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/875-12.
Kravchenko, M. V. (n.d.) Actual problems of social protection of invalids in Ukraine. Retrieved from : http://academy.gov.ua/ej/ej12/txts/10kmvziu.pdf
How to Cite
The authors who publish in this collection agree with the following terms:
• The authors reserve the right to authorship of their work and give the magazine the right to first publish this work under the terms of license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 (with the Designation of Authorship - Non-Commercial - Without Derivatives 4.0 International), which allows others to freely distribute the published work with a mandatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this magazine.
• Authors have the right to make independent extra-exclusive work agreements in the form in which they were published by this magazine (for example, posting work in an electronic repository of an institution or publishing as part of a monograph), provided that the link to the first publication of the work in this journal is maintained. .
• Journal policy allows and encourages the publication of manuscripts on the Internet (for example, in institutions' repositories or on personal websites), both before the publication of this manuscript and during its editorial work, as it contributes to the emergence of productive scientific discussion and positively affects the efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the published work (see The Effect of Open Access).