SEM OF CALCIOSPHOSPHATE MATERIALS BIOMEDICAL PURPOSE
Using a scanning electron microscope (Carl Zeiss, Germany), the mineralogical composition and microstructures of calcium phosphate materials based on Са3(PO4)2 and additives (ZrO2, MgAl2O4, MgO, Са10(PO4)6F2) were studied using the method of two-stage self-tinted cellulose-coal replicas and extracting replicas. The possibility of using the studied materials to correct defects in bone tissues and replenish their deficiency is assessed. The dependences of the microstructure of materials on the content and size of impurities and heat treatment modes are determined. It was found that the strength of the crystalline intergrowth and the adhesion force of crystals for the materials under study will be the greater, the smaller the ionic radius of additives. A full range of medical and toxicological-hygienic tests of the developed materials on warm-blooded animals was carried out, It was found that they belong to low-toxic, low-hazard substances with weakly expressed cumulative properties; they do not have gonadotoxic, embryotoxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects, skin-irritating and skin-resorptive properties. It was found that they do not cause any negative reactions in adjacent tissues, do not have specific long-term effects of exposure, and can be used to make up for a lack of bone tissue. The resulting materials can also be used as constituents of composites used in stereolithographic (3D) printing of the necessary fragments of the skeleton to replace the lost ones. The developed materials are characterized by biological compatibility with bone tissue due to the content of C3P, and due to the content of inorganic impurities, they are characterized by inertness with respect to aggressive liquid media of a living organism; this is due to their lower solubility. The presence of impurities simultaneously increases the mechanical properties of the composites. The introduction of the developed materials in reconstructive surgery will solve the problems of correction of bone tissue defects.
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