SAFETY ISSUES OF OVERSIZED CARGOES TRANSPORTAION BY SEA
The article deals with general principles, rules and requirements for oversized and heavyweight cargoes carriage on deck. Since the most of all international freight transportations carried out by sea, the value that water transportation has for the successful development of the economies of many countries is hard to overestimate. Water transport has a number of serious advantages that significantly distinguish it from other modes of transport. The most important of them are the possibilities of delivering goods to those areas where it is impossible to deliver by other methods, and low cost with significant cargo capacity. Cargo shipping might be complicated depending on the cargo unit, which has non-standard parameters in terms of weight, volume and dimensions. In a situation where one or more parameters such as length, width, cargo height exceed the standard FEU (forty feet container) dimensions, then we are talking about the transportation of oversized cargo by sea. Many industries need modern technology and unique equipment that should not be disassembled into components during transportation. Hence, such cargo being exceptional due to the great value require the special conditions of carriage and transportation and special techniques for stowage and securing. Understanding and learning the transportation features of oversized cargo and its options before the shipment is essential in forthcoming project. The main issue during the sea transportation is the deck cargo-shifting problem, which leads to hazardous occurrences. Actions for shifting prevention are ensuring the proper supervision, implementing stowage methods, the proper cargo dunnaging and securing procedures during port operations, monitoring of parameters and characteristics that justify the safety of the vessel and cargo during the sea passage is high priority. Thus ensuring the safe conditions of sea transportation of deck cargo units is the most important task in the safe operation of seagoing vessels, which leads to improving the quality, safety and efficiency of the use of water transport.
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