HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY EFFICIENT ECOLOGICAL SETTLEMENTS, CLASSIFICATION AND WORLD EXAMPLES
The article considers the movement of ecological settlements since the end of the 18th century, namely from the stage of industrial and scientific-technological revolution - industrial revolution, which provoked the eviction of people from rural areas, thus causing intensive development and rapid urban growth in many countries. Poor living conditions and the acute environmental situation have given impetus to scientists in various fields of science, prompted to find ways to overcome this situation.
The relevance of the article is due to the need for historical analysis, the invention of the brightest foreign examples of urban formations, namely energy-efficient ecological settlements, which will improve the environmental situation resulting from the industrial revolution, thereby causing severe damage and affecting the living conditions of our society.
Recently, scientific interest in energy-efficient ecological settlements, both from a theoretical and empirical point of view, has greatly increased, so first of all, the article cited several terms that clearly describe what is meant by energy-efficient ecological settlements. based on the use of alternative energy sources, trying to change and oppose the main environmental, social, economic and political institutions. Historical data show that each urban planning entity has its own chronology and preconditions for organization. The article analyzes the main stages of the formation of the first settlements, which later evolved into energy efficient and completely independent of external resources of the settlement.
The first settlements arose in the illegally occupied territories. Since seas and rivers were an extremely important geopolitical factor for ancient world civilizations and countries, they determined both the directions of migration and settlement, as well as conquests and colonization. The main prerequisites for the organization of settlements were geographical and climatic factors. The settlement required areas with fresh water, recreational areas, fertile land and a warm mild climate. It was found that ecological settlements are classified by type, structure, region and location. Here are some examples of energy-efficient ecological settlements that have been operating successfully since the early 1990s to the present day. The article contains general plans of these settlements, and briefly describes each example.
In conclusion, the role of energy-efficient ecological settlements is very large, they regulate many environmental and economic aspects through passive construction, rational use of resources, waste management and application of urban planning principles and design standards.
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