JUSTIFICATION OF THE EXPEDIENCY OF USING THE URBAN UNDERGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF CIVILIAN POPULATION
Keywords:missile strikes, Civil Protection, bomb shelter, dual-use premises, shopping and entertainment center.
Current legislation to ensure civil protection of people from the effects of dangerous factors, in particular, hostilities or terrorist acts provides for the use of dual-use buildings – basements and basements, subway stations, subways, parking lots, underground shopping centers. An analysis of the state of Kharkiv's storage facilities showed that the vast majority of bomb shelters did not meet even the minimum sanitary and hygienic standards. The best conditions and the most reliable protection were given to people hiding at subway stations.
These shelters are quite suitable for staying for several hours during an air alert, ie for a short stay. The realities of the war proved that in the eastern, south-eastern cities of Ukraine the period of continuous stay of the population in bomb shelters is weeks and months, which was not provided by current legislation and the State Construction However, the conditions when hundreds of people are forced to live on the floor of subway stations and in cars for a long time without proper sanitary and hygienic, hot food conditions are a humiliation of human dignity.
The peculiarities of the use of the underground space of the city for the placement of dual-use premises for use as a bomb shelter during the military aggression were studied. In our opinion, the most suitable of the dual-use buildings listed in the normative documentation are some of the premises of underground shopping and entertainment centers, where, in particular, enterprises and institutions of daily service are located. One of the significant advantages of the underground floors of shopping and entertainment centers is the low operating costs of energy resources compared to the above-ground floors, which is especially important during martial law. This approach will allow people to stay for a long time, meet basic needs and even work in a safe underground space. A functional scheme of placement of dual-use premises and service enterprises within the shopping and entertainment center has been developed, as well as proposals for amendments to the State Building Standards.
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