• D. Ponkratov O. M. Beketov National University of Urban Economy in Kharkiv
Keywords: public transit, passenger transportation, vehicle capacity, in-vehicle crowding level, load factor


Urban public transport ensures a high level of service for its users. Despite the challenges of comprehensiveness of the measurement of the level of transport service, the one of the most important unit assessment is in-vehicle crowding level. Excessive crowding level of the vehicle compartment causes passengers feeling uncomfortable during trip. Consequently, the crowding level is a factor, should be rationing.

Assessment of in-vehicle crowding level observing using different indicators which have variation in units of measurement, descriptive properties, circumstances of apply, etc. Simultaneously, it makes it harder to assess and compare conditions of public transit according to occupancy rate, via dissimilar measures of its value, as well during the observation, as well as the address the challenges of urban public transport organization. In view of the above-mentioned, formalization of the relationship between the crowding indicators in urban public transport is a pressing task that needs to be addressed. The research presents the relationship between these in-vehicle crowding level: the passengers density per sq. m of the vehicle’s floor intended for standing passengers (passenger density) The floor area of the vehicle intended for single standing passengers; load factor which is defined as the ratio of the number of passengers in the cabin of the vehicle to its capacity; load factor is defined as the ratio of the number of passengers in the cabin of the vehicle to the number of seats.

The relationship between considering indicators of occupancy rates of vehicles have been established. Its value is entirely determined via dependencies of the ratio of seats in the passenger capacity of vehicles and the passenger density at which its was found.

Further research is focused on the application of the proposed dependencies in solving the problems of rationing the public transit crowding level and assessing the influence of the occupancy rate on the passenger’s route choice decisions.

Author Biography

D. Ponkratov, O. M. Beketov National University of Urban Economy in Kharkiv

Ph. D. (Eng.), Associate Professor, department of transport system and logistics


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How to Cite
PonkratovD. (2020). FORMALIZATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PUBLIC TRANSIT CROWDING INDICATORS. Municipal Economy of Cities, 3(156), 29-34. Retrieved from