GLOBAL ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN PLANNING TRENDS 1900s and 1930s AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING OF METROPOLITAN KHARKOV
Organizational changes in project activity and the stages of its formation in the Ukrainian SSR as a tool for constructing a new social reality have been traced. The first stage was the approval of the altered role of architecture and the architect in socialist model, the second - the inclusion of social relations and lifestyle in the subject of architectural creativity, the third - conceptual approaches / models and the fourth - the creation of new samples of architecture.
Global trends in urban planning and housing construction in the 1920s - 1930s essential for understanding the processes taking place in the construction of the capital Kharkov have been established. Namely:
– the formation of urban planning schools at the turn of the XIXth and XXth centuries. (England, France, Germany, Austria (Vienna), as well as in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kharkov and Kiev;
– outsourcing knowledge from other sciences (statistics, economics, law, sociology, etc.);
– aspiration to construct cheap housing, industrialization and standardization;
– attraction of private capital to the construction of residential complexes.
A similarity pointed out between architectural and urban planning concepts is composed of the attraction to conceptual solutions alike to the "garden city" in early 1920s, the search for a new housing typology (sometimes small) with facilities; creation of the concepts of a house-commune and a housing complex.
Implementation of avant-garde concepts in the development of social and housing infrastructure of the metropolitan Kharkov is considered. In the 1920s the formation of architectural and urban planning concepts in the USSR took place in correlation with the basic social ideas of architectural and urban planning practices of the West in the following sequence: noncritical borrowing of Western bourgeois models ("garden city"), attempts at social innovation inspired by the classics of utopian socialism (house-commune as phalanx reincarnation), constructing new functional-spatial models as means of implementing social doctrine (residential complexes); socio-economic invention in the context of industry planning (Sotsgorod). Practical verification of the models created at each stage became an incentive for new searches.
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